Internet Resources for BHT514:  The Modern and Postmodern Era

Barry W. Hamilton, Ph.D.

Northeastern Seminary (Rochester, NY)



1.1: Nineteenth Century

1.2: Twentieth Century


2.1: Revelation, Authority, and Inspiration

2.2: Historical Criticism and Exegetical Method

2.3: Twentieth-Century Hermeneutics


3.2: Twentieth-Century Protestant

3.3: Roman and Anglo-Catholic


4.2: Patterns of Pastoral Vocation

4.3: Approaches to Worship




Session 1.1: Nineteenth Century


The Enlightenment—from the Internet Modern History Sourcebook.


Unitarianism—from the General Assembly of Unitarian & Free Christian Churches.


Universalism—A Brief History of the Unitarian Universalist Association.  Includes a link to a Reading and Research List.


Great Awakening—a webpage on the First Great Awakening, by Christine Heyrman, University of Delaware.


Revivalism—by Donald Scott, Queens College, City University of New York.  Includes links to other online resources.


Jonathan Edwards—Select Sermons from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Calvin College.

Charles G. Finney—the text of Lectures on Revival, from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library, Calvin College.


Salvation Army—a denominational website with links to history pages on William Booth, Catherine Booth, and more.

First Vatican Council—from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1908).  Dated text, but still useful.


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Session 1.2: Twentieth Century


Ecumenical Movement—a basic bibliography on the World Council of Churches and the Ecumenical Movement.


World Council of Churches—the official homepage of the WCC in English.

Edinburgh Conference—not an academic article, but nevertheless a useful website for its historical perspective.


Second Vatican Council—one of the best websites for the Second Vatican Council, developed by a Catholic organization for Catholic students.  Highly recommended.


Second Vatican Council—Archive of the II Vatican Council—an official website from the Holy See.  Highly recommended.


Barmen Declaration—English text adapted from Robert McAfee Brown, Kairos:  Three Prophetic Challenges to the Church (Eerdmans, 1990).  Recommended.


Barmen Declaration—“The Theological Declaration of Barmen,” written by Karl Barth.  Recommended.


Fundamentalism—a scholarly, introductory essay by Professor Grant Wacker of Duke University, with bibliographic references and a link to additional online resources. Highly recommended.


Pentecostalism—“The Origins of the Pentecostal Movement” by Dr. Vinson Synan, former director of The Holy Spirit Research Center (Oral Roberts University) and a general superintendent emeritus (Pentecostal Holiness Church).  One of the best websites on the history of Pentecostalism on the Internet, from a scholarly source.  Highly recommended.


Billy Graham—the home page on the Internet for the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association.


Billy Graham Center—the home page for the Billy Graham Center at Wheaton College.


Billy Graham Center Archives—contains links/information for researchers.  Recommended.


Martin Luther King, Jr.—selected links/resources from Louisiana State University.  Recommended.


Synoptic Problem—“A Synoptic Gospels Primer” from Rutgers University.  Arguably the best site on the Internet for the Synoptic Problem.  Highly recommended.


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Session 2.1: Revelation, Authority, and Inspiration


Lots of Links to Biblical Resources—a page with numerous links to biblical resources, just as the title reads.  Sponsored by the General Board of Global Ministries/The United Methodist Church.  One of the first places you should look for general information on biblical studies.  Highly recommended.


Formation of the Biblical Canonanother outstanding website with numerous links to resources on the formation of the canon.  From the NT Gateway, maintained by Dr. Mark Goodacre of the University of Birmingham.  Highly recommended.


Inspiration, Authority and Interpretation—views from a conservative/evangelical perspective.


Charles Hodge—a short biography taken from a recently published book. 


Charles Hodge--Justification—a lengthy essay on the doctrine of justification.


Charles Hodge—Systematic Theology—one of the high-water marks of Calvinist theology.  Recommended.


Karl Rahner—a brief biography, bibliography and chronology of events.  Recommended.


Karl Rahner—scroll down the page for annotated links to websites about Karl Rahner.  From the Wabash Center Guide to Internet Resources for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion.  Highly recommended.


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Session 2.2: Historical Criticism and Exegetical Method


Rudolf Bultmann—provides brief biographical information and an overview of Bultmann’s theology.  Recommended.


Rudolf Bultmann—a summary of biographical information (but not of his theology) from the Synoptic Gospels Primer.  Recommended.


Form Criticism—an excellent summary from the Synoptic Gospels Primer.  Highly recommended.


Redaction Criticism—an excellent summary from the Synoptic Gospels Primer.  Highly recommended.


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Session 2.3: Twentieth-Century Hermeneutics


The Postmodern Bible—contains excerpts from chapters.  Highly recommended.


Feminisms—an outstanding annotated bibliography on feminist and womanist biblical hermeneutics, from Vanderbilt Divinity Library.  Highly recommended.


Hermeneutics—from Dr. Mark Goodacre, University of Birmingham (UK).  The links to websites on socio-rhetorical criticism are especially noteworthy.  Recommended.


The Pyramid and the Net:  The Postmodern Adventure in Biblical Studies—an essay by Dr. David A.J. Cline of the University of Sheffield (UK).  Highly recommended.


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Session 3.1: Nineteenth-Century Protestant


The Gospel according to the Jesus Seminar—an outstanding article by noted scholar Birger A. Pearson.  Carefully unpacks the arguments from the Jesus Seminar and its principal scholars.  Highly recommended.


Kierkegaard—an excellent overview of Soren Kierkegaard’s thought from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.



Soren Kierkegaard—Resources on the Internet.  Has numerous links to scholarly resources.  Highly recommended.


Schleiermacher—an excellent short biography and summary of his scholarly achievements from the Synoptic Gospels Primer.

Highly recommended.


Schleiermacher on Language and Feeling—an article published in Theology Today in 1960 by Richard R. Niebuhr.  One of the best summaries of the content of Schleiermacher’s theology, particularly his views on ethics, hermeneutics, and—most importantly—the place of “feeling” in his theology.  Highly recommended.


Schleiermacher on Christ and Religion:  A New Introduction—published in Theology Today in 1966, this article discusses Richard R. Niebuhr’s contributions to understanding Friedrich Schleiermacher’s theology, particularly the latter’s concept of religion as “feeling.”  Highly recommended.


Ludwig Feuerbach Archive—contains links to digital archives of several major works by the German theologian and philosopher, best known for The Essence of Christianity (1841).  Recommended.


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Session 3.2: Twentieth-Century Protestant


Center for Process Studies—a good place to find short articles that explain process thought/process theology.  Click on the left tab labeled “Process Thought” to find links to these articles.  Recommended.


“Pannenberg’s Theology—A Review”—this article assesses Pannenberg’s contribution to theology.  Recommended.


Paul Tillich—several excellent links to bibliographies and papers about this 20th-century theologian—including texts of some of Tillich’s best-known works.  Recommended.


Paul Tillich—an excellent short biography and—even better—a summary of his theology.  Includes a very brief bibliography and a few links.  Highly recommended.


Wolfhart Pannenberg—a collection of articles by and about this contemporary theologian.  Recommended.


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Session 3.3: Roman and Anglo-Catholic

Decrees of the First Vatican Council—includes Pastor Aeternus.


Hans Kung—an early version of the “Declaration of the Religions for a Global Ethic.”

The Venerable John Henry Cardinal Newman—an outstanding website with extensive links to resources on the Oxford

Movement and its leaders.  Includes links to the “Tracts for the Times.”  For those interested in Newman or other aspects of the Oxford Movement, this is an essential site.  Highly recommended.


Oxford Movement—an informative, though dated, article from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913 ed.).


The Tractarian Movement—a brief but scholarly overview of the Oxford (or Tractarian) Movement. 


What is the Oxford Movement?—An authoritative overview from Pusey House/Oxford.  Recommended.


Pope John Paul II—a short, introductory biography from CNN News.  Recommended.


Pope John Paul II—an “unofficial” home page for the popular pontiff.


Pope John Paul II—the official information from the Vatican.  Recommended.


Pope Leo XIII—an informative, though dated, article from the Catholic Encyclopedia (1913 ed.).


Pope Leo XIII—the official website from the Vatican.  Recommended.


Pope Leo XIII—Capital and Labor—Rerum Novarum—text of the encyclical from 15 May 1891.


Pope Leo XIII—Providentissimus Deus—On the Study of Holy Scripture—18 November 1893.


E. B. Pusey—an opinionated overview favorable to the life and work of E. B. Pusey, one of the leaders of the Oxford

            (or Tractarian) Movement. 


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Session 4.2: Patterns of Pastoral Vocation


Charles G. Finney—text files of chapters from his 1868 book, Power from on High. 


The Neo-Orthodox Theology of Reinhold Niebuhr—a brief summary of the life and thought of Reinhold Niebuhr. 

            As with all summaries of this nature, do not substitute the reading of the summary for a reading of Niebuhr himself.


Optatam Totius—text of the Decree on Priestly Training issued by Pope Paul VI in 1965.


Presbyterorum Ordinis—text of the Decree on the Ministry and Life of Priests issued by Pope Paul VI in 1965.


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Session 4.3: Approaches to Worship


Charismatic Renewal Movement—extensive list of links to Pentecostal/Charismatic resources on the web.


Vatican II Dogmatic Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy—excerpts from the document Dei Verbum.


Dei Verbum—text of the Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation issued by Pope Paul VI in 1965.       


Gather Faithfully Together—text of Cardinal Mahony’s controversial pastoral letter.


Liturgical Movement—article on the “Liturgical Reforms of Pope St. Pius X.”


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28-Mar-03 by Barry Hamilton